In Lublin, in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, the greatest European Empire of the Renaissance - the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - was born. This happened in 1569, when the Union of Lublin was signed in Lublin, according to which Poland was united into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, into one state.
The old city of Lublin is protected by two gates, and behind its walls on the site of the former fortress there is a Renaissance-style castle. In Lublin, you can learn a lot about the tragic fate of Polish Jews: the former fascist death camp is located on the territory of the city. So, the main attractions of Lublin, the pearls of Poland:
Lublin Castle is located on the hill of the same name among the oldest royal places in Poland. It was built in the XII century by Prince Casimir II the Just. At first the castle was wooden - then, at the beginning of the 13th century, a round main tower was added to it, and in the 14th century, during the reign of King Casimir III the Great, stone walls were added.
The main tower reaches a height of 20 meters and has strong walls 4 meters thick at the base. At the top of the tower is a classic Romanesque-style biforium window, separated by a column. Inside is the Lublin Museum, which displays exhibits on the history of the city during the Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth.
Address: Lublin Castle, Zamkowa, Lublin, Poland.
Holy Trinity Chapel
In the courtyard of the castle is a chapel, which was erected at the same time as the tower. At the beginning of the XV century, it was reconstructed by order of King Vladislav Jagello.
The chapel was remade in 1418: inside it was decorated with Byzantine-style frescoes, which became a symbol of the union of the Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic churches. The frescoes are in excellent condition and depict short sketches from the Bible, as well as the only surviving portrait of King Vladislav Jagello.
Address: Kaplica zamkowa pw. Świętej Trójcy, Zamkowa, Lublin, Poland.
State Museum in Majdanek
The death camp Majdanek, located in the southeast of Lublin, was liberated by the Soviet army in 1944 and shortly afterwards it was turned into a memorial museum. And in 1965 he acquired the status of the first State Museum of Poland.
A heartbreaking and at the same time bewitching sight - Majdanek is the most surviving of the Nazi death camps due to the fact that the retreating German troops did not have time to destroy the buildings. In less than three years, nearly 80,000 people were killed in the main camp, and about 130,000 people died in the network of support camps.
The museum has many artifacts from Majdanek and other camps, as well as an archive of photos and eyewitness accounts of what was happening here. The mausoleum with a mound of ashes of prisoners and a gas chamber with blue spots on the walls of the gas Cyclone B - one of the most terrible evidence of the tragedy in Majdanek.
Address: Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku, Droga Męczenników Majdanka, Lublin, Poland.
Lublin Village - Open Air Museum
This open-air museum, inspired by the Swedish Skansen Museum, is located in the Slavina district, a 15-minute drive from the city center. The museum is a real reflection of rural life in the Lublin province of the past. The museum covers an area of almost 30 hectares.
While walking along the alleys and paths among the reconstructed thatched-roof houses, windmills and workshops, you get the feeling that you were in a real village of the 18th-19th centuries. The houses have expositions of ancient tools, furniture, personal items, and the pens contain livestock: goats, hens and horses.
On the territory of the museum there is even a small provincial center with all the benefits of civilization: there is dentistry, a bar, a post office, a hairdresser, and also a small lake near which you can take pictures.
Address: Muzeum Wsi Lubelskiej, aleja Warszawska, Lublin, Poland.
The Trinitarian Tower used to be part of the city gate near the Lublin Jesuit College. In 1819, Polish architect of Italian origin Antonio Corazzi increased the height of the tower by 60 meters. At the very top is a tin figurine in the form of a rooster: it is believed that it can warn the city of impending danger.
If you climb a narrow spiral staircase with a length of 207 steps, an extensive city landscape will unfold before you. Along the stairs are paintings and sculptures that can be seen when climbing the tower.
Address: Wieża Trynitarska, Królewska, Lublin, Poland.
Between Lublin Castle and Market Square, the Old Town is located in a small but picturesque area. On the main street with the name Grodzka, there are old houses. Some of them need restoration, but even in this state they have a special charm.
In the summer there are ice cream shops, bars and restaurants with outdoor terraces at every step, and artists and musicians walk the streets.
The most beautiful and interesting houses are located on the Market Square: this is house number 8 of the Lubomelsky family, with a bright red facade and a balustrade on the roof, and house number 12, which belonged to the Konopnitsa family, with decorative dents at the top of the building and beautiful stucco frames on the windows.
Address: Old Town, Lublin, Poland.
Castle Tower (Donjon)
The defensive tower in the Romanesque style, or dungeon, is the oldest building on Castle Hill. The tower was built of stone and brick around the middle of the 13th century. It has a cylindrical shape and a homogeneous structure and is an excellent example of late Romanesque architecture. The tower was installed in the same way as other fortifications of the XIII century: inside the protective ring, which served as the basis of the fortification structure.
The height of the tower is 20 meters, and the wall thickness at the base reaches 4 meters. The upper part of the tower is decorated with biforia - a Romanesque-style window divided in half by a stone column. On the tower itself there is a panoramic terrace with a wonderful view of the Old Town and the surrounding surroundings.
The castle tower and chapel remained the only buildings that survived after the destruction of the Lublin Castle during the wars of the 17th century. Since 1826, the castle and the tower served as a prison, and since 1957 there are exhibits of the Lublin Museum.
Address: Donżon, Zamkowa 9, 20-400 Lublin, Poland.
Cathedral of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist
The Cathedral of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist was built by the Jesuits at the end of the 17th century and became one of the first Baroque buildings in Poland. The cathedral was designed by the Italian Catholic monk and architect Giovanni Maria Bernardoni and repeats the design of the Gesu church in Rome.
After the fire in 1719, Jozef Meyer, court painter of the Polish king Augustus III, painted the interior walls of the cathedral with frescoes depicting scenes from the Bible. The Jesuit Order of Poland disintegrated in 1773, and from 1805 the cathedral became part of the Lublin Archdiocese.
The crypt is open to the public. It contains the graves of Lublin bishops, as well as expositions of church clothes and various items for holding funeral rites. Above the crypt is an altar made of black stone surrounded by gold columns, and nearby are Baroque paintings: “Herod's Feast” and “Last Supper”.
Address: Archikatedra św. Jana Chrzciciela i św. Jana Ewangelisty, Królewska, Lublin, Poland.
The imposing neoclassical building in the center of the Lublin market is the old Crown Tribunal, which operated from 1578 to 1794. It was founded by King Stefan Batory as the highest court in the Kingdom of Poland - a place where everyone knew the Lesser Poland Voivodeship to resolve legal disputes.
In the 1780s, the building was rebuilt by Domenico Merlini, the Italian court architect of King Stanislav Augustus Poniatowski. Soon after, during the Sections of the Commonwealth in 1794, the Crown Tribunal lost its influence. From the dungeons of the Crown Tribunal begins the Lublin Underground Tourist Route.
Address: Crown Tribunal, Rynek, Lublin, Poland.
Through the main gates of the city, a pale yellow road runs from the city market to the Lublin Castle. Once they marked the entrance to the Jewish quarter of Lublin, and in recent decades, the main gate is the center of the cultural heritage of Polish Jews.
At the very heart of it is the Museum-Exposition “Memory of the Place”, which stores the memories of the Lublin Jewish quarter, which was completely wiped out during the Holocaust.
Based on a detailed historical research and a cache with more than 2700 photographs found in an abandoned attic in 2012, the museum clearly shows visitors the history of the victims of the Holocaust and reproduces the life of the city during the war with the help of photoplastics (stereoscopic images).
The museum also has a room with a Lublin list of the Righteous Among the Nations of the world - the names of non-Jewish citizens who harbored Jews, thereby saving their lives, are listed there.
Address: Grodzka Gate - NN Theater, Grodzka, Lublin, Poland.
In the southwestern corner of the Old Town are the upper gates of Lublin, erected by Casimir III the Great after the Tatars attack in 1341. This gate received guests from Krakow, located in the southwest three hundred kilometers from Lublin.
The watchtower at the gate was used to track fires. In the XVII century, the tower and gate were reconstructed in the Baroque style. Currently, the Krakow Gate separates the Old Town and the business district of Lublin.
Come to the gate at noon to hear the trumpet playing Heynal and look inside, where is another museum of the history of Lublin.
Address: Brama Krakowska, Bramowa, Lublin, Poland.
Old Church Square (Ruins of the Church of St. Michael the Archangel)
The old church square is located between the market and the main city gate. This is a favorite place for walks and meetings of local residents, which is included in the obligatory list of what you need to see in Lublin.
The square was called “church”, because since medieval times there was a church parish on it, demolished in the middle of the XIX century due to the dilapidated state of the building. The remains of the foundation of the church were excavated in the 1930s and since the beginning of the 2000s, these mysterious medieval stones have become an adornment of the square.
The old church square has a special atmosphere and is perfect for friendly meetings, and in summer it hosts street performances and open-air concerts.
Address: Plac Po Farze, Grodzka, Lublin, Poland.
Botanical Garden at Maria Skłodowska Curie University
The Botanical Garden with an area of 25 hectares was laid out on the northern slope of the Chekhovka River in 1956. On the territory of the garden are the arboretum, rock garden, rose garden, swamp, greenhouses and real pharmacy gardens.
The total number of garden crops is more than 6,500 copies. Even if you are not particularly good at plants, in the garden you can simply admire the picturesque scenery with many ravines and various ponds or wander along the winding paths leading deep into the forest.
After exploring all the exhibits, you can sit in a small cozy cafe.
Address: Ogród Botaniczny Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Sławinkowska, Lublin, Poland.
Basement under Fortune
In the basement of the house number 8 of the Lubomelsky family, which is located on the Market Square, another interesting attraction is hidden: in 2012, the Museum of the History of Lublin with multimedia displays was opened there.
Modern technologies tell interesting details about the life of citizens of the 16th and 17th centuries and about the representatives of various religions in Lublin: Protestants, Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Jews.
The museum also has an exposition in which Lublin of the 19th century is presented during the period of industrialization. The most interesting, tenth room, is located deep in the basement. It houses an old wine cellar decorated with original Renaissance frescoes with intricate curls, floral patterns and sketches from ancient mythology.
Address: The Pod Fortuną Cellar, Rynek 8, 20-111 Lublin, Poland.
Museum House of Words
On Жmigród Street 1 (Ulica Żmigród 1) is a printing house, founded in 1932. Now in this building is a museum. Before the war, the left wing of the house was occupied by the Popular Press department, which printed works by such avant-garde poets and political minds as Jozef Chekhovich and Jozef Lobodovsky.
Later, during the occupation, illegal leaflets were made in the same printing house, because of which 14 employees of the Popular Press department were executed. The museum displays exhibits of ancient bookbinding, printing forms and printing presses from various periods of history.
Educational workshops are also organized in the House of Words, in which children can print their own leaflets using equipment from the mid-20th century.
Address: Dom Słów, Żmigród, Lublin, Poland.
Lublin underground track
From the dungeons of the Crown Tribunal you can go on an exciting journey through the underground tunnel of Lublin. It consists of interconnected basements of urban houses of the XVI-XVII centuries. A tourist route with a length of almost 300 meters was opened in 2006 and includes 14 exhibition halls.
In the museum’s rooms are reduced models of Lublin, which show how the look of the city changed from the 700s to the end of the 17th century. Where merchants used to store goods, now there are exhibitions telling about important historical events of the city. Among them are enemy attacks, outbreaks of epidemics, the signing of the Union of Lublin, which gave rise to the great state of the Commonwealth, as well as the fire of 1719.
Address: Lublin Underground Trail, Rynek 1, 20-112 Lublin, Poland.
Initially, the Dominican monastery was a group of Gothic buildings founded by King Casimir III the Great in 1342. After the devastating fire of 1575, the monastery was rebuilt in the Renaissance style.
The two main historical sights of the church are the Chapel of the Firley clan (1615), in which the graves of members of this family are located, and the Tyszkiewicz Chapel (1645-1659) with amazing stucco molding of the Renaissance.
In the southern part of the ensemble is a beautiful small park with stunning views of the city. To get a deeper insight into the history of Lublin in the 18th century, you should pay attention to the large historical picture “Lublin Fire”. The canvas depicts the devastating fire of 1719, which destroyed most of the city. The painting is in the Chapel of the Shaniavsky family on the right side of the monastery.
Address: Dominican Priory, Złota 9, 20-112 Lublin, Poland.
Orthodox synagogue Yeshiva Chachmey
The Yeshiva Chachmey Synagogue was founded by Rabbi Yehuda Meir Shapiro in 1930 and was at that time the largest Talmudic university in the world. It was built in an eclectic style designed by Agnor Smoluhovsky. In the year of foundation, the school officially began its work.
Many historical events took place in the building, and in 2003 it was returned to the Warsaw Jewish community. On January 22, 2006, a small temporary synagogue appeared on the ground floor. On February 11, 2007, the synagogue was officially opened for the Jewish community of Lublin, as well as for Hasidim and groups of Jewish tourists coming to the city.
The premises of the synagogue with an area of 200 square meters. meters occupies the second and third floor in the south wing of the building. The Women's Gallery is supported by eight Corinthian columns. In the neighboring rooms you can get acquainted with the history of Yeshiva and honor the memory of its founder, Rabbi Meir Shapiro.
Address: Jeszywas Chachmej Lublin, Lubartowska, Lublin, Poland.
New town hall
The town hall was built on the site of the church and monastery complex belonging to the Order of the Barefoot Carmelites, the construction of which lasted from 1613 to 1619. After a big fire in 1803, the burnt buildings began to belong to the city.
In the years 1827-1828. they were rebuilt in the current building of the New Town Hall. During the reconstruction, the main nave and the western chapels of the former church were converted into office premises. The facade was reconstructed in a neoclassical style and a portico with four columns was also attached to it.
Initially, the city treasury, merchant club, police station and prison, as well as the municipal archive were located on the ground floor. The first floor of the town hall was given for classrooms and a ballroom, and the head of the city lived and worked on the second floor. During World War II (in 1939 and 1944), the building of the town hall was bombed and burned.
In the period from 1947 to 1952, it was rebuilt according to the project of the architect Ignacy Kendzerski, who made every effort to preserve the external historical appearance of the building. The interior of the building was redone and adapted to modern needs. At present, representatives of local government are sitting here, including the mayor of Lublin.
Address: Urząd Miasta, plac Króla Władysława Łokietka, Lublin, Poland.
Previously, the Lithuanian Square was located in the former Krakow suburb, which was located in front of the city gate leading to the old road to Krakow. The territory of the modern square is located between the main trade route of the city and the old road running along the ветwiętoduski estate towards Wieniawa.
The location of the Lithuanian Square of our days can be found on the map of Lublin in 1783. The name “Lithuanian Square” was first used in 1839 by Severyn Sierpinski in his guide “The Image of Lublin”. Soon after, the square became the center of the city and is to this day.
Monuments dedicated to Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the Unknown Soldier and the Constitution on May 3 are on Lithuanian Square. Also on the square is a memorial obelisk in honor of the signing of the Polish-Lithuanian Union in 1569. In the year of the celebration of the 700th anniversary of Lublin, the Lithuanian Square was opened after reconstruction.
The park, located in the heart of the city, has become a favorite place for residents and visitors. The square also opened a new spectacular multimedia fountain. It is equipped with water, light, sound, reflective and laser effects that are very impressive in the evening. In the park there are many benches and places for rest, which seat about 650 people. For children, playgrounds are equipped on site.
Address: Lithuanian Square, plac Litewski, Lublin, Poland.
Gothic (semicircular) tower
The Gothic tower with curtained exterior walls is an example of ancient city fortifications in the Gothic style. The tower is also called Semicircular for its shape. The tower and city walls were built of stone and brick in 1341. Wooden floorings provided access to the defenders of the city to the battlements of the fortification. Unfortunately, the covered passages leading to the loopholes have not survived to this day.
Each tower was under the care of one of the Lublin guilds. The Gothic tower was supervised by the guild of merchants. Their duty was to deliver artillery weapons and gunpowder there. In the old days, thick church candles were made in the tower.
For their production, hemp rope was used, along which wax flowed down into foundry molds. The tower was rebuilt in the 1980s. During the overhaul in 1993, the walls with loopholes were restored to their original historical appearance.
Address: Baszta Gotycka w Lublinie, Królewska, Lublin, Poland.
The Zemborzyck reservoir was built on the Bystrica river from 1970 to 1974 with the participation of the so-called “voluntary public service”. Now it is an excellent place to relax: on the territory adjacent to the reservoir there are beaches, bars, restaurants, places for barbecue and children's playgrounds.
The most popular holiday destination with children is the Słoneczny Wrotków water park. This is a modern entertainment complex with pools, water slides, paddling pool for children and a pirate island. Swimming accessories are available nearby, and bike rental is available.
Outdoor enthusiasts can go kayaking down the Bystrica River. And those who want to relax and take a break from the bustle of the city can simply lie on the grass, enjoying the beautiful nature.
Address: Zalew Zemborzycki, Lublin, Poland.
Cemetery on Lipova street
The formation of the oldest Lublin necropolis was initiated by order of the State Police Committee. It stated that since 1792, overcrowded church cemeteries must be moved outside the city limits. They decided to build a new cemetery near the western border of the city on land purchased from the Brigittok sisters. The territory of the cemetery was planted with lindens, so the cemetery was called “Under the lindens” or “Lipki”. Since then, the street on which the cemetery is located is called Lipova.
The cemetery complex consists of several parts: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant and the newest - military sites. Many famous personalities who took part in the development of the city and country rest in this place. Among them are Jerome Lopatsinsky, Iji Radzishevsky, Karol Rudolf Vetter, Emil Plage and the Hess family. In the central part of the columbarium at the military cemetery there is an urn with earth from the place of the death of the great Lublin poet Jozef Chekhovich.
Many tombstones are examples of the excellent work of sculptors. Among them, a monument on the grave of the Bobrovsky family from Snopkuv, made in 1888 by the famous Polish sculptor Boleslav Syrevich, should be noted.
Address: Cemetery on Lipowa Street, Lipowa, Lublin, Poland.
Photo and description
The Botanical Garden in Poznan is a public park, as well as a scientific and educational center at the University of Adam Mickiewicz. On an area of 22 hectares, an impressive collection of 7000 species and varieties of plants from almost all climatic zones has been collected. The Botanical Garden is located in the western part of the city.
The initiator of the foundation of the botanical garden was the university professor Rudolf Boettner in 1922. The opening ceremony took place in 1925, where the Polish president Stanislav Wojciechowski was present. On the territory of 2.5 hectares, a special pool for aquatic plants, departments for tropical plants, and training rooms were built. In 1930, the territory of the botanical garden was enlarged.
In January 1975, the garden was added to the register of monuments. Since 1981, the Botanical Garden has been a division of the University of Poznan. In the mid-80s, rare plants of North America and the Far East, and shrubs of endangered plant species were purchased. The Botanical Garden boasts its rich collection of ferns - more than 1,150 species, as well as rare species of cacti from Madagascar. A unique collection of orchids is presented in greenhouses - one of the richest in Poland. Rock garden area of almost 6000 square meters. meters contains about 1600 taxa brought from the mountain ranges of the Carpathians. The Department of Aquatic and Swamp Plants has collected many species of reeds.
The Poznan Botanical Garden constantly exchanges interesting finds and unique seeds with other similar institutions. Currently, it interacts with 400 botanical gardens from 58 countries.
In 2006, a modern two-story exhibition complex was opened here, built by the architect George Gurawski. Photo exhibitions are constantly held in the pavilion, on the ground floor there is a specialized library with a reading room.
Initially, the garden occupied about 5 hectares, and its first directors in 1811-1816. its founders were Johann Link, professor of taxonomy, anatomy and plant physiology, and F. Heide, professor of natural history and agriculture. From 1816 to 1830, the director was Ludolf Treviranus. His successor in 1830-1852. was a plant taxonist Nes von Esenbeck, who was removed from office for political reasons in connection with his activities during the revolutions of 1848-1849. In the years 1852-1883, when he was director of Johann Heinrich Goeppert, the garden was expanded.
After Goppert, the botanical garden was successively led by Adolf Engler (until 1889), Karl Prantl (until 1893), Ferdinand Pax (until 1926), Peter Stark (Polish Peter Stark, until 1928), Johannes Buderus (Polish Johannes Buderus, until 1945) . The latter in 1933 expanded the boundaries of the garden by 1 hectare.
In 1945, during the siege of the Breslau fortress during World War II, a collection of garden plants and half of all plants of the botanical garden were completely destroyed. In the garden, the Germans placed anti-aircraft positions and built numerous ammunition depots. Even in the 50s, during a thorough cleaning of the garden pond, an impressive arsenal was found at the bottom.
During the first three years after the war, the head of the destroyed botanical garden was Professor of Botany Stanislav Kulchinsky, the first rector of the University of Wroclaw. In 1948, it was decided to restore the garden, and this task was entrusted to Professor Henryk Telezinski Polish. and Stefan Mack. In the 1950s, the botanical garden was open only on Sundays and holidays. In 1957-1972, the garden was led by a doctor (later professor) Zofia Guminska (Polish Zofia Gumińska). In 1958, sappers cleared the pond and built an arched wooden bridge over it, which to this day remains one of the symbols of the garden. Starting this year, the garden is open to the public every day of the week.
In 1960, another hectare of land was added to the garden from the side of Šventokrzyská Street (Polish ul. Świętokrzyskiej), on which in 1967 a special pool for aquatic plants was built. From 1972 to 1980, the head of the garden was Professor Cristina Kukulchanka (Polish. Krystyna Kukułczanka). In 1974, the Botanical Garden was included in the register of monuments of Wroclaw Voivodeship (since 1994, along with the historical center of Wroclaw, it is considered a historical attraction). Since 1981, the garden has been led by Professor Tomasz Nowak (Polish Tomasz J. Nowak).
Currently, the garden covers an area of 7.4 hectares (greenhouses occupy 0.33 hectares), about 7.5 thousand plant species grow here (taking into account different varieties - 11.5 thousand).
The garden grows 27 trees, which are considered natural monuments, among them: oaks, yews, ginkgo, beeches and plane trees.
In the rock gardens you can see the geological section of the Walbrzych coal deposits, built in 1856, as well as petrified traces of extinct plants, petrified tree trunks.
Since 1988, the branch of the botanical garden has been the arboretum in Wojsławice (near Nemcha), which covers an area of 62 hectares and is famous for its large collection of rhododendrons and rare conifers.